By GEOFF FOX
Missy Futrell and her husband Carl wanted nothing more than to raise a family of their own.
When they were still childless after 13 years of marriage, the Futrells began exploring adoption. It wasn’t a quick process. For a few years, the Jacksonville, Florida, couple viewed scores of profiles of children up for adoption and were interested in many. Every time, though, adoption coordinators didn’t think the match was right.
But the Futrells were persistent. Eventually, Missy Futrell saw a picture of an 18-month-old boy named Treston.
He wasn’t an “ordinary” baby. Besides being born with fetal alcohol syndrome, Treston – or “Trey” – was diagnosed with mosaic Down syndrome, a type of Down syndrome in which a percentage of a person’s cells have an extra copy of the 21st chromosome. Mosaic Down syndrome is extremely rare, affecting 2 to 4 percent of Down syndrome cases; about one in 27,000 people are diagnosed with it, according to the International Mosaic Down Syndrome Association.
Trey also has autistic tendencies, but none of that mattered to the Futrells.
“The adoption workers made it seem so bad; they said he may never walk, read or speak – and he would need lifelong care,” Missy Futrell said. “That seemed odd to me. They had nothing really positive to say about this child. We had had several miscarriages and if I was having a baby, I wouldn’t care (about the diagnoses). That’s my child.”
Carl, who helps manage a local funeral home, said the couple was equally resolute.
“They told us, ‘He’s not normal, do you still want him?’” he said. “Well, how do they know if we’re the ones who aren’t normal? What’s normal? The way somebody acts? Everybody acts differently. When you love somebody, you see them in a different way. If you love something, it’s 100 percent perfect for you.”
The Futrells adopted Trey in 2008 and despite Trey’s challenges, he thrived. The family was happy and Trey was growing up in a loving environment. The Futrells, who have been married 21 years, also recently adopted a 2-year-old girl, MaryBelle. They have also provided foster care for other children.
When it was time for Trey to begin school, Missy Futrell, who had worked in the recruiting and staffing field, decided to homeschool him through kindergarten and first grade.
A couple of years ago, the Futrells learned about the Gardiner Scholarship managed by Step Up For Students. The scholarship helps parents individualize the educational plans for their children with certain special needs, including autism, spina bifida, cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.
With the scholarship, parents can direct funds toward a combination of programs and approved providers, which may include schools, therapists, specialists, curriculum, technology and a college savings account. The average scholarship is worth $10,000. The Futrells applied for the scholarship and Trey was accepted.
Last year, Trey, who recently turned 10, went to second grade at a private school for children with learning disabilities or emotional issues.
It didn’t go well.
“Trey is an extremely trusting and sweet child,” Missy Futrell said. “He’s very quiet in public, and he is nervous around large crowds, new people and children. At home, he’s a lot more talkative, but he doesn’t talk much in social situations and can be awkward socially as well. He went (to the private school) all last year and made little progress academically. He also doesn’t interact with the others and was bullied. It just wasn’t a good fit for him.”
Thanks to the scholarship’s flexibility, Missy Futrell home-schooled him last year, as she was able to give him an environment that puts him at ease and the one-on-one attention he needs. Much of the scholarship money now goes toward curriculum, including online courses, and various technology, as Trey works much better with computers than pen and paper.
The family has used Step Up’s Purchase Assistance with Best Buy Education program, a partnership that allows Gardiner Scholarship parents to easily purchase items, many of which are pre-approved. Best Buy Education bills Step Up, which pays through the student’s scholarship account. Parents praise the program because many struggle to pay for all the care that comes with raising a child with special needs, so it can be tough to wait for reimbursements out of the scholarship account for big-ticket items.
“When I heard about Step Up’s Purchase Assistance with the Best Buy Education program, I jumped on it,” Missy Futrell said. “He really does so much better with technology. When he has to write, it could take him 45 minutes to an hour to do a 10-question worksheet, because he has to make each letter perfectly or he (gets frustrated). Through use of an iPad or computer, I can see more of what he’s able to do. With the technology, he clicks it or touches it and he just likes it so much better. I’ve heard that a lot of kids with special needs are like that.
“We use Time4Learning online courses that has all different subjects. We use it on his computer and his confidence is really growing. When he does something right, it tells him, ‘Wonderful!’ Or, if he’s wrong, it tells him in ways that don’t upset him. I can gauge where he is and what he knows. And there are so many apps on the iPad. I can take a picture of his worksheets and it converts them to where he can type in the letters rather than write them.”
Among other things, the family has also purchased a Phillips Hue Table Lamp and color ambiance kits. Whenever Trey starts getting overwhelmed by something, they switch the light on to a color that helps calm him.
Thanks to the Amazon Echo, which uses the voice-controlled service, Alexa, Trey can also listen to relaxing music when he needs to. Because the device is compatible with the Phillips Hue Lamp, it helps him understand his moods.
“If he’s upset, we tell (Alexa) to make the light angry and it turns red,” Missy Futrell said. “He can see in color what his current mood is. It makes him understand more what he’s feeling and if he’s mad, then he needs to relax. It helps identify his behavior and also helps the people around him.”
Carl Futrell described Step Up’s Purchase Assistance with the Best Buy Education program as blessings for which his family is grateful.
“In order to raise children with special needs, you have to have those who are willing to help,” he said. “These things we can outsource, it helps our family. It’s hard to make ends meet. You keep working and working and you get that income, but you miss that time being with your family.
“Now, he can call me on Facetime on his iPad and just say, ‘Dad, what are you doing?’ And I ask him how his day is going and if he’s being good for his mom. He’s usually playing with his stuffed animals – he loves monkeys. He pretends they’re the Ninja Turtles.”
For the Futrell family, this is their normal. And it’s the family they always dreamed about having, one connected by unconditional love.
Step Up For Students, a Florida-based nonprofit, empowers parents to pursue and engage in the most appropriate learning options for their children, with an emphasis on families who lack the financial resources to access these options. By pursuing this mission, Step Up For Students helps public education fulfill the promise of equal opportunity. In addition to the Gardiner Scholarship Program which helps parents customize the education of their children, ages 3 to 22, with certain special needs, Step Up For Students also administers the income-based Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program (FTC). With the FTC scholarship, economically disadvantaged parents of children in grades kindergarten through 12 are empowered to find the school – private or out-of-district public – that meets their child’s learning needs. Step Up For Students’ dedication, however, doesn’t end when students are awarded one of these scholarships. Through its Innovation Fund, Step Up helps maximize the impact of the scholarships by creating and enhancing education-based innovations that propel children toward a brighter future. To learn more about Step Up For Students, or to find out how you can help, please visit www.StepUpForStudents.org.
A COPY OF THE OFFICIAL REGISTRATION (CH-14609) AND FINANCIAL INFORMATION MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE DIVISION OF CONSUMER SERVICES BY CALLING TOLL-FREE 1-800-435-7352 WITHIN THE STATE OR ON THEIR WEBSITE WWW.800HELPFLA.COM. REGISTRATION DOES NOT IMPLY ENDORSEMENT, APPROVAL, OR RECOMMENDATION BY THE STATE.
Geoff Fox can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Doug Tuthill, president of Step Up For Students, recently took a few moments to talk about his vision for the organization.
“We’re in the equal opportunity business,” Tuthill said. “We want to make sure that low-income children have the same opportunities more affluent kids have. We want to make sure special needs (students) have their needs met also.”
By GEOFF FOX
It was just after 10 a.m. and dozens of students at Pace Brantley School were in the middle of campus, kicking soccer balls in a large field, playing on a jungle gym, swinging and jumping rope under a cloudless sky.
Their voices and laughter were carried on a light breeze that shook Spanish moss in dozens of majestic oak trees that line the sprawling, nine-acre campus.
It was eighth-grader Ben Zanca’s favorite time of day.
“I like it because I get to make friends, and you get to do a lot of fun things,” he said.
Ben has asthma, cerebral palsy, autism and CLOVES syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by tissue overgrowth and complex vascular malformations. After struggling in public school and at a charter school, he was thriving in his first year at Pace Brantley.
“His self-confidence has increased tremendously,” said his mother, Ann Zanca. “It’s a lot of hands-on learning. He made a car out of a Coke bottle and started telling me about Newton’s laws of motion. His reading had regressed when he went into middle school, but here his reading, spelling and writing has much improved. And he’s enthusiastic about going to school.”
In 2016-17, Pace Brantley served over 170 second- to 12th grade students. Ben was one of about 35 students on the Gardiner Scholarship for students with certain special needs. The scholarship is managed by Step Up For Students.
The school includes seven buildings, an outdoor basketball court and well-manicured football and baseball fields. The campus had one building, a former house, when the school opened in 1971. Additional buildings have been added as needed, and as money was available. The school has always been geared toward students with learning issues.
“The majority of our students have a difficulty such as auditory processing disorder, dyslexia or ADHD,” said Jennifer Foor, Pace Brantley’s elementary and middle school principal. “Some of them are on the autism spectrum, but on the high-functioning side. The kids on the spectrum are not here because of behavior concerns.”
Pace Brantley currently has three mental health counselors on campus, as well as an occupational therapist, speech pathologist and full-time nurse who specializes in handling students with anxiety issues.
This year, the school even “hired” Ben, a therapy dog who lives with school nurse Tara Mahoney and comes with her to work every day – like a law enforcement K-9 officer. An American breed mix, Ben is quick to lick the hands of strangers. When he is tired, he is not shy about dropping to the floor and stretching with a low yowl.
Ben has been immensely popular since his Jan. 3 debut on campus. Whenever students are feeling especially anxious, they can see Mahoney – and Ben.
“It’s positive redirection and visualization. I speak in a calm voice and there’s low lighting,” Mahoney said. “We typically end up on the floor. They can convey their feelings to Ben or just pet him. Usually, after 10 or 15 minutes they’re ready to go back to class. There’s a more relaxing vibe with him being here. He makes everybody feel more comfortable.”
Pam Tapley, who has been Pace Brantley’s head of school for three years, is always looking to incorporate effective, innovative concepts to benefit her students. She was previously an assistant superintendent of schools in Osceola County and has been a high school principal.
“I’m passionate about providing the environment that allows students with differences to be celebrated and surrounded by people who honor and respect that, but also believe they can be successful,” Tapley said. “We have a wrap-around philosophy. We want to provide the environment for students to be successful, but we do it with the parents, with the occupational therapy, with the speech therapy, the mental health therapy.
“We wrap the whole family into the support. A lot of times the families are frustrated. They’re seeking answers and support and we give that to them here. They don’t feel isolated anymore.”
The environment includes everything from cutting-edge technology in classrooms to practical lessons outdoors.
For example, there is a television production studio, where morning announcements are made under the supervision of instructor Katie Nichols and broadcast through the school. The studio features a green virtual television studio background, Macintosh computers, iMovies for editing, three cameras and a teleprompter.
There is also a greenhouse, where students grow snap peas, tomatoes, lettuce, kale and cabbage under the guidance of science teacher Suzy Grimm. Toward the back of the campus is the Arts Building, where drama classes are held. This year, the school is working on a production of “Aladdin.”
Ninth-grader Ryan Sleboda, a first-year student at Pace Brantley, said he loves the school.
“It’s more challenging than my other schools,” said Ryan, a Gardiner scholar who was diagnosed with autism. “The other schools just did the basics. This really is way more interesting.”
Those on the autism spectrum also benefit from social skills groups in which they learn to better interact with their peers.
“They go over eye contact and body language during personal interaction,” Foor said. “They learn how to react in situations and have conversations.”
The campus’ newest building is the high school, which opened in the 2010-11 school year. Besides classrooms and lockers, the high school features a complete science lab.
“They do dissections in there and everything,” Foor said.
According to Tapley, the school may not be done growing. She hopes to begin a capital campaign to build a vocational center on campus. Tapley is involved with the Greater Sanford Chamber of Commerce and often talks to business leaders in the community to determine what kind of employees they need.
It’s a way of helping her students succeed after graduation.
“What are we providing in a learning situation that gives them the time to learn to be valuable employees?” Tapley said. “We’re gathering the data now. We’re looking at (careers in) plumbing, construction, air-conditioning, culinary and early childhood. We want to look at the employability rates, because you don’t want to flood the market.”
Susan Sleboda, Ryan’s mother, said the school has been a blessing for her entire family.
“He has blossomed because of being at that school,” she said. “What they offer these kids – the environment, in particular – is in my opinion revolutionary. For a child like mine, who can’t typically succeed in a learning environment, it’s like a puzzle fitting together. For Ryan, it provides the perfect environment. The teachers are understanding of your child’s disabilities, as well as their abilities.
“It would be difficult to afford without the scholarship. It would be like paying another college tuition.”
Geoff Fox can be reached at email@example.com.
By GEOFF FOX
Doctors didn’t expect Ben Zanca to live very long. Even before his birth, fluid was drained from his lungs every week for eight weeks until he was delivered.
Ben’s parents, Ann and Tony Zanca, were told Ben may need a chest tube after his birth and possibly surgery.
“But, when they put the (chest) tube in all the blood vessels shut down,” Ann Zanca said. “It’s called persistent pulmonary hypertension, which not many people survive at that age. He was transferred to Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children (in Orlando) where there is a heart-lung bypass machine.”
Things looked bleak.
“They told us he was going to die,” Tony Zanca said. “They called in a priest and everything.”
Fortunately, a nitric oxide treatment worked and Ben did not have to go on the lung-heart bypass machine.
“They said they’d never seen a baby as sick as Ben pull through,” Ann Zanca said.
Unfortunately, Ben’s medical struggles and the family’s worries were only beginning. Problems with his blood vessels went misdiagnosed for more than 12 years.
About 18 months ago, Ben, now an outgoing 14-year-old who loves camping, was finally diagnosed with CLOVES syndrome, an extremely rare disorder characterized by tissue overgrowth and complex vascular malformations. Worldwide, less than 200 cases of CLOVES syndrome have ever been identified, according to information from Boston Children’s Hospital.
Because of CLOVES, Ben is at risk for developing blood clots and has regular doctor visits to monitor his vascular health.
That’s not his only issue. Shortly after he was born, Ben was diagnosed with cerebral palsy. He also has been diagnosed on the autism spectrum and deals with epilepsy and asthma.
Until the current school year, he attended public school in Altamonte Springs, Florida, where he lives with his family, including 9-year-old sister Megan. Tony Zanca works in the parts department of a local auto dealer and Ann works part-time jobs as a computer programmer analyst and as an advocate for parents with children who have an Individualized Educational Plan.
Ben was not thriving at the public school.
“It’s not that they didn’t care, but he wasn’t going anywhere; he was going backward,” Tony Zanca said. “Teachers have their hands tied with all the new testing and all they did was quizzing for the test. There was no hands-on learning, which is what Ben thrives on.”
For years, Ann Zanca wanted to enroll Ben in the nearby Pace Brantley School in Longwood, but the family couldn’t afford it. Established in 1971, the school has always been geared toward students with learning issues. It is situated on nine wooded acres that offer a serene setting.
Eventually, a friend told Ann Zanca about the Gardiner Scholarship for children with certain special needs; the scholarship is managed by Step Up For Students. In 2016, the Zancas applied for the scholarship – which can help families pay for tuition at partner schools, approved therapists, specialists, curriculum, technology or even a college savings account – and Ben was accepted.
“Ben is very social and I don’t want him to miss out on the experience of school,” Ann Zanca said. “They have a well-rounded curriculum and lots of extra-curricular activities. They even have a prom. I was also concerned if it would be academic enough. Of all the places I knew of or visited, it seemed to be up to standards.
“It seems to challenge him but he doesn’t seem overwhelmed. There are people there to help him. We do have a private tutor for math. His teacher tells me he’s definitely challenged in pre-algebra, but he’s doing well. That makes me happy. The goal is that he’ll be able to get a regular diploma and either go to vocational school or college afterward.”
Now in eighth grade, Ben enjoys going to school. Due to his medical issues, he often has doctor’s appointments during the school day. Before, his mother said, he would sometimes call from school to see if she could pick him up early. Now, he doesn’t want to leave Pace Brantley’s campus.
While he has historically struggled with reading, English is now one of his favorite subjects, along with math.
“We were learning substitution, the three ways of substitution in math,” Ben said after a recent day at school. “That’s in algebra; it’s coming along.”
Of his favorite times of day is FLEX (Focused Learning Experience) Time, when students can choose a subject of their own to explore after lunch. Activities can include arts and crafts, learning a foreign language, tennis, yoga, tai chi or taking virtual field trips on a Smartphone.
On this particular day, Ben chose art.
“We were drawing different types of flags and what they look like,” he said. “I drew the Florida flag.”
Jennifer Portilla, Ben’s reading and language arts teacher, said she has seen him flourish since the school year began.
“He seems really comfortable and he’s willing to take risks. He’s not afraid to not be successful” in class, she said. “Academically, he’s making strides. He’s a pretty good writer for his age. He is able to write an essay and he doesn’t seem to struggle as much as at the beginning of the year.”
One of Ben’s other interests is the Boy Scouts. Despite his son’s many medical obstacles, Tony Zanca said he tries to treat him “like any other boy would be treated.” On a recent Boy Scout camping trip, he allowed Ben to paddle on a canoe with another scout.
“Years ago, I would never let him out in canoes down the river without me,” Tony Zanca said. “But it’s like I told him, ‘I’m going to have to start letting you do things by yourself, make your decisions and not do things wrong’. Someday soon, I’ll let him go on a (Boy Scout) camping trip by himself.”
The Zancas say that while Ben is obviously aware that he has medical issues, he doesn’t dwell on them. Because CLOVES can cause blood clots (Ben has had a few), they constantly monitor how he’s feeling. Now that he’s at Pace Brantley, which has a nurse on campus, his parents are more at ease.
“The scholarship was huge, like the answer to our prayers,” Ann Zanca said. “His self-confidence has increased tremendously. It’s a lot of hands-on learning. He made a car out of a Coke bottle and started telling me about Newton’s Laws of Motion. His self-confidence has increased tremendously.”
Reach Geoff Fox at Gfox@sufs.org.
A licensed speech therapist, Stacey Thomas interned as a University of South Florida graduate student at Morning Star School, a small Catholic school in Pinellas Park serving students with special needs.
“When I was there, I knew that school was special,’’ Thomas said.
Years later, the wife and mother of three returned to Morning Star, but this time as a parent. Thomas’ eldest child, Liam, has Down syndrome. He longed to attend a school where he could do the things other kids did like sit at their own desk and eat lunch in the cafeteria with friends. But Liam needed special services like one-on-one instruction and speech therapy. Thomas, featured recently with Liam in our student spotlight, immediately thought of Morning Star.
She just wasn’t sure her family could afford tuition until Liam qualified for the Gardiner Scholarship, formerly Personal Learning Scholarship Accounts, through Step Up For Students. The annual scholarship, on average about $10,000 per student, is awarded to families based on their children’s certain disabilities and can help cover costs for tuition, curriculum, therapies and other education needs.
“It literally has been the hugest blessing,’’ said Thomas, who lives in Tampa with her husband, Trey, Liam, 9, and his two siblings, Sydney, 8, and Laine, 3.
With Liam making huge learning gains during his third-grade year at Morning Star, Thomas agreed to share with us her strategy on finding the school that worked best for him:
Do you have some words of wisdom to share with other parents and caregivers, or do you have an idea for a story? Please contact Sherri Ackerman, public relations manager, at sackerman@StepUpForStudents.org
By TRAVIS PILLOW, redefinED
Editor’s note: This story originally appeared on the redefinED blog on Jan. 21. The blog is hosted by Step Up For Students, and is an education blog dedicated to recasting the way we perceive public education.
With Gov. Rick Scott’s signature, Florida’s newest educational choice program has a new name, and will be able to serve more students.
Legislative leaders joined Gov. Rick Scott after he approved legislation aimed at helping people with special needs.
Flanked by Senate President Andy Gardiner and his family, House Speaker Steve Crisafulli, and the lawmakers who sponsored the legislation, Scott approved SB 672 on Jan. 21 during a ceremony in the governor’s office.
The new law increases funding for the Gardiner Scholarship program by roughly a third, to $71.2 million. It also allows more 3- and 4-year-olds to use the education savings accounts for students with special needs, and makes them available to children with muscular dystrophy and a wider range of students with autism.
The scholarships, previously known as Personal Learning Scholarship Accounts, allow families to pay for school tuition, therapy, curriculum and other education-related services of their choice. Step Up For Students, which hosts this blog, helps administer them.
Earlier in the day, Gardiner, whose family provides the namesake for the scholarships, praised another aspect of the law, which expands programs for special needs students at state universities. Scott also approved HB 7003, aimed at helping more special-needs students join the workforce.
In a statement, Gardiner said the new laws will help make Florida “the state where all people have access to an education suited to their own unique needs and the opportunity to achieve their career goals.”
“The complete cradle-to-career pathway to economic independence will make a significant impact on the lives of individuals with unique abilities and their families for generations to come,” he said.
Patricia Levesque, the executive director of the Foundation for Florida’s Future, said in a statement that the new laws never would have come about without advocacy from parents. (Gardiner has a son with Down syndrome.)
“It wasn’t all that long ago when students with disabilities were shunned in classrooms; their needs ignored and their abilities dismissed,” Levesque said. “Every time I see a child with unique abilities, behind him or her I see a parent with unique passion and commitment.”
Step Up For Students Family and Community Affairs (FCA) team recently began hosting “Coffee and Conversations” events with Personal Learning Scholarship Accounts (PLSA) recipients’ parents, kicking off the program on Sept. 30 in Tallahassee, the state capital.
Since then, the team has met with parents in St. Petersburg and Jacksonville, and plans to bring the program to other areas throughout Florida.
The PLSA program, which provides funding for children with certain special needs for private school, approved educational tools, therapies and even for college savings, was created by the Florida Legislature in 2014. On average, eligible students receive about $10,000 annually.
The goal of the “Coffee and Conversations” events is for FCA staff to get feedback from PLSA parents on the program including on eligibility and reimbursement processes, use of funds, and for parents to network with other local parents in their area.
“Using that feedback, we will work to make the program better,” said Sara S. Clements, FCA’s director of external affairs. “There is nothing more valuable than hearing directly from parents who are using this program. We are thankful for parents giving us feedback on ways to improve our internal processes, as well as ideas to expand the program legislatively in the future.”
The parent feedback has been positive, Clements said, adding that she said one parent took to Facebook to express her gratitude.
“Loved [Coffee & Conversations]. I got answers to questions, and had the opportunity to meet wonderful staff and fellow parents,” the mother wrote.
The FCA team also uses these meetings as an opportunity to educate parents on the importance of the legislative process, and sharing how they can support the PLSA program by speaking to their elected officials.
The FCA team is hosting additional “Empowerment Trainings” in as a follow-up to Coffee & Conversations, where the focus will be more on parent advocacy, including training on how parents can share their stories with lawmakers and other elected officials.
Editor’s Note: This post originally ran Oct. 23 on the redefinED blog, which is hosted by Step Up For Students, and is an education blog dedicated to recasting the way we perceive public education. Travis Pillow attended the Foundation for Excellence in Education’s annual policy summit in Denver earlier this week.
DENVER – There were more than a few wet eyes in a room full of education reform advocates when Katie Swingle told her story of finding the right school for her son.
After learning a traditional public-school setting wouldn’t work, she found a specialized private school that could help her son overcome autism, dyslexia, and speech apraxia. She now has hope he’ll return to public school one day.
On Thursday, Swingle, who has also wowed Florida legislators with her story, said that as states expand educational choice for students with special needs, other parents’ stories might be different from hers.
While she used a Personal Learning Scholarship Account through Step Up For Students to send her son to a school that gave him the support he needed, she said other parents might send their children to a more traditional school, but use their education savings accounts to pay for therapies like applied behavior analysis, or other educational expenses.
“Every kid needs something different,” she said during a discussion of education savings accounts at the Foundation for Excellence in Education’s annual policy summit in Denver. “We needed Woodland Hall [Academy].”
As more parents start using educational choice accounts to pay for things beyond school tuition, it raises other questions — and possibilities. It’s hard enough to provide a clear, agreed-upon measure of school quality. But it might be even harder to attribute test scores, learning gains or graduation rates to therapeutic programs, tutors, or groups of parents who purchase curriculum and help their children learn at home.
Adam Peshek, school choice policy director for the Foundation of Excellence in Education, said test scores might help parents track the progress of their children, but to judge the quality of various education providers, states might need to try something different.
“Have parents be required to rate their experience with vendors,” he said. “Let’s use what they know to create real accountability.”
Swingle said many parents, especially those with special needs children, are making active decisions about their children’s education already.
“We have to put more faith in parents,” she said. Not every parent might have the expertise to comparison-shop among curriculum providers or drive across town to check out schools. “But that’s where we have each other. The poorest, least-educated autism mom is on Facebook.”
The challenge, then, is giving these parents the tools to make the most informed decisions possible.